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文章来源:admin    时间:2021-01-04

  If you walked into a cafe or pub in the UK a few years ago, chances were you'd enter a room filled with cigarette smoke. The aroma1 of burning tobacco lingered on your clothes for the rest of day and your health took a battering2 from passive 凯发k8官smoking. It's no wonder that in many countries smoking in public places has now been banned, and those who choose to do it have to inhale3 on the pavements outside.   Laws restricting where people can light up and repeated health warnings have seen many people quit the habit. But despite a decline in smoking rates worldwide, a report published in the medical journal The Lancet in 2017 found that smoking causes one in ten deaths worldwide, half of them in just four countries - China, India, the US and Russia. When population growth is taken into account, there is actually an increase in the overall number of smokers4. So why - despite the warning signs - are these people still doing it?   Much of it seems to be connected to people's cultural, economic and social background. In the UK, for example, the Office for National Statistics found that people living on a low income are disproportionately likely to smoke. And one in four manual workers smokes, compared with one in ten of those in professional or managerial jobs. Dr Leonie Brose from King's College London, writing about this for the BBC, says there are "startling" regional variations with many more pregnant women smoking in deprived areas. And people with mental health problems are "50% more likely to smoke than the rest of the population". She suggests these groups can have higher levels of dependence5, making it harder to give up and are also more likely to be around other smokers, making it seem like normal behaviour.    Increasing the price of cigarettes and making packaging plainer are two ways to discourage smoking; and lower-risk nicotine6 patches and e-cigarettes are available as an alternative, though they can be just as addictive7. It's obvious something needs to be done and recently the UK government pledged to end smoking in England by 2030 as part of a range of measures to tackle the causes of preventable ill health. But as Dr Leonie Brose writes, "with more than 200 deaths in England per day [caused by smoking-related diseases,] that's the equivalent to a plane crashing every day." Imagine what the number must be globally.
1 aroma      n.香气,芳香,芳香 参阅例句:
  • The whole house was filled with the aroma of coffee.满屋子都是咖啡的香味。
  • The air was heavy with the aroma of the paddy fields.稻花飘香。
2 battering      n.用坏,损坏v.连续猛击( batter的现在分词 ) 参阅例句:
  • The film took a battering from critics in the US. 该影片在美国遭遇到批评家的强烈打击。
  • He kept battering away at the door. 他连续不断地砸门。 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 inhale      v.吸入(气体等),吸(烟) 参阅例句:
  • Don't inhale dust into your lung.别把尘埃吸进肺里。
  • They are pleased to not inhale second hand smoke.他们很快乐他们再也不会吸到二手烟了。
4 smokers      吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 ) 参阅例句:
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不简单把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼好像不在乎吸烟带来的种种损害。
5 dependence      n.依托,依靠;信任,信任;从属 参阅例句:
  • Doctors keep trying to break her dependence of the drug.医师们尽力使她改掉毒瘾。
  • He was freed from financial dependence on his parents.他在经济上摆脱了对爸爸妈妈的依靠。
6 nicotine      n.(化)尼古丁,烟碱 参阅例句:
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily.许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不简单把烟戒掉。
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily.许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不简单把烟戒掉。
7 addictive      adj.(吸毒等)使成瘾的,成为习气的 参阅例句:
  • The problem with video game is that they're addictive.电子游戏机的问题在于它们会使人上瘾。
  • Cigarettes are highly addictive.卷烟很简单使人上瘾。

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