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文章来源:admin    时间:2021-06-16

  新冠病毒的变异株不断出现,可是你知道怎样称号这些变异株吗?比方最早在印度发现的变异毒株学名为B.1.617.2,又该怎样念呢?针对变异毒株难念难写又难记的问题,一起也为了防止将毒株和地名联络在一起发生的污名化问题,世界卫生安排主张用希腊字母表来给新冠变种毒株重新命名。   The World Health Organization has proposed new names for Coronavirus variants2 using letters from the Greek alphabet. 世界卫生安排提出用希腊字母表的字母重新命名新冠变种毒株。   WHO's naming scheme will be used to label noteworthy strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such as 'Delta3' for the variant1 first detected in India, also known as B.1.617.2. 世卫安排将为值得重视的新冠病毒变种重新命名,比方将印度初次发现的变种毒株命名为Delta,该毒株又名为B.1.617.2。   Naming variants after a geographical4 location — such as a country — is misleading because a Covid variant didn't necessarily emerge where it was initially5 identified, but people from that place are still blamed for a variant's spread of a Covid variant. 依据地舆位置(比方一个国家)为变种毒株命名简单发生误解,由于变种纷歧定是在最早发现的当地发生的,可是那里的人们仍然会由于变种病毒的传达而遭到责备。   In a letter to the journal Science, researchers concluded that "scientific and media reports should not refer to variants by country names" but admitted that "mutation-based or lineage names are difficult to say and write." 研究人员在致《科学》杂志的一封信中总结道“科学和媒体报道不该该用国名来指代变种”,可是也供认“根据变异的姓名或谱系名难念又难写”。   Mark Pallen, professor of microbial genomics at the Quadram Institute and University of East Anglia, suggested alternatives that use a pre-generated list of proper nouns because labels like B.1.617.2 are so tricky6 to pronounce and remember. 四方研究所和东英吉利亚大学的微生物基因组学教授马克·帕伦主张选用一个固有的专有名词清单来重新命名,由于B.1.617.2这样的标签欠好念也欠好记。   WHO designed its Greek naming scheme to allow people to talk about Covid variants without using inappropriate labels, says Pallen. "It was so that the media and the public could communicate quickly about the variants." 帕伦称,世卫安排拟定了一个希腊命名方案,让人们不必再用不合适的标签来议论新冠变种病毒。“这样媒体和大众就可以在议论变种病毒时快速沟通。”   WHO will assign a Greek letter after selecting a 'Variant of Interest' (VOI) — a strain with mutations that seem to increase local cases or impact health — or a 'Variant of Concern' (VOC) that also spreads more readily, is more virulent7 (causes severe disease) or can escape the immunity8 provided by vaccines9. 世卫安排会在选出“待查询变种”或“须关心变种”后分配希腊字母。“待查询变种”便是导致本地病例添加或影响患者健康的变种,“须关心变种”便是在此基础上传染性更强、加剧患者病况或疫苗对其无效的变种。   As of 31 May 2021, WHO had assigned names to six VOIs and four VOCs. The four worrying variants have been named Alpha (AKA lineage B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2), which were first detected in the UK, South Africa, Brazil and India respectively. 到2021年5月31日,世卫安排现已给6个待查询变种和4个须关心变种指定了姓名。这4个值得重视的变种分别被命名为Alpha(又名为B.1.1.7)、Beta(B.1.351)、Gamma(P.1)和Delta(B.1.617.2),初次发现这些变种的地址分别是英国、南非、巴西和印度。   WHO's scheme has solved a major problem: labels based on location can create social stigma10 and lead to racism11. Using Greek letters provides a practical solution because the new names are easy to say, write and remember. There's no excuse not to use them. 姓名根据地址的标签会形成社会污名化,引发种族轻视,而世卫安排的命名方案处理了这个大问题。选用希腊字母也很有用,由于新姓名好念、好写也好记。没有理由不必这些新姓名。   Persuading the media to use Greek letters could still be a challenge, however. A press release that announces the scheme ends by saying that, to avoid using names that are stigmatizing12 and discriminatory, "WHO encourages national authorities, media outlets13 and others to adopt these new labels." 但是,压服媒体选用希腊字母名仍然是个应战。一篇宣告该方案的新闻稿的结束是这样写的:为了防止运用带来污名和轻视的姓名,“世卫安排鼓舞各国政府部门、媒体安排和其他各方都选用这些新标签。”   WHO's approach has some minor14 limitations. Delta Airlines probably won't be pleased to have its brand associated with a Covid variant, for example, and it's not clear what will happen after variants inevitably15 outnumber the letters from the Greek alphabet. 不过,世卫安排的命名办法也有一些小小的局限性。举例来说,达美航空公司应该不期望自己的品牌名和新冠变种联络在一起,并且当变种数量不可防止地超越希腊字母表的字母数量时,又该怎样办呢?
1 variant      adj.不同的,变异的;n.变体,异体 参阅例句:
  • We give professional suggestions according to variant tanning stages for each customer.咱们针对每位顾客不同的日晒阶段,供给强度合适的晒黑主张。
  • In a variant of this approach,the tests are data- driven.这个办法的一个变种,是数据驱动的测验。
2 variants      n.变体( variant的名词复数 );变种;变型;(词等的)变体 参阅例句:
  • Those variants will be preserved in the'struggle for existence". 这些变异将在“生存竞争”中被保存下来。 来自辞典例句
  • Like organisms, viruses have variants, generally called strains. 与其他生物相同,病毒也有变种,一般称之为株系。 来自辞典例句
3 delta      n.(流的)角洲 参阅例句:
  • He has been to the delta of the Nile.他曾去过尼罗河三角洲。
  • The Nile divides at its mouth and forms a delta.尼罗河在河口分岔,形成了一个三角洲。
4 geographical      adj.地舆的;区域(性)的 参阅例句:
  • The current survey will have a wider geographical spread.当时的查询将在更广泛的地域规模內进行。
  • These birds have a wide geographical distribution.这些鸟的地舆分布很广。
5 initially      adv.开端,开端 参阅例句:
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首要遭到美国的对立。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.茸毛开端由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
6 tricky      adj.奸刁的,奸滑的;(作业等)扎手的,奇妙的 参阅例句:
  • I'm in a rather tricky position.Can you help me out?我的境况很扎手,你能帮我吗?
  • He avoided this tricky question and talked in generalities.他回避了这个十分奇妙的问题,只做了个抽象的表述。
7 virulent      adj.有毒的,有歹意的,充溢歹意的 参阅例句:
  • She is very virulent about her former employer.她对她过去的老板咬牙切齿。
  • I stood up for her despite the virulent criticism.虽然她遭到狠毒的批判,我仍是保护她。
8 immunity      n.优惠;革除;豁免,豁免权 参阅例句:
  • The law gives public schools immunity from taxation.法令革除公立学校的交税责任。
  • He claims diplomatic immunity to avoid being arrested.他要求外交豁免以便防止被捕。
9 vaccines      疫苗,痘苗( vaccine的名词复数 ) 参阅例句:
  • His team are at the forefront of scientific research into vaccines. 他的小组处于疫苗科研的最前沿。
  • The vaccines were kept cool in refrigerators. 疫苗放在冰箱中冷藏。
10 stigma      n.羞耻,污名;(花的)柱头 参阅例句:
  • Being an unmarried mother used to carry a social stigma.做未婚母亲在社会上曾是不光彩的事。
  • The stigma of losing weighed heavily on the team.失利的羞耻让整个部队压力沉重。
11 racism      n.民族主义;种族轻视(认识) 参阅例句:
  • He said that racism is endemic in this country.他说种族主义在该国很遍及。
  • Racism causes political instability and violence.种族主义道致政治动乱和暴力事件。
12 stigmatizing      v.使受羞耻,责备,侮辱( stigmatize的现在分词 ) 参阅例句:
  • Laing regards the concept of mental illness as both unscientific and stigmatizing. 菜恩以为精神病的概念是不科学的和诬蔑性的。 来自辞典例句
  • The existing social benefits are considered to be stigmatizing and repressive. 现存的社会福利被责备为是无价值的、残酷的。 来自互联网
13 outlets      n.出口( outlet的名词复数 );经销店;插座;廉价经销店 参阅例句:
  • The dumping of foreign cotton blocked outlets for locally grown cotton. 外国棉花的推销阻滞了当地出产的棉花的销路。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • They must find outlets for their products. 他们有必要为自己的产品寻觅出路。 来自《现代汉英归纳大词典》
14 minor      adj.较小(少)的,较非必须的;n.辅修学科;vi.辅修 参阅例句:
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年青的男演员在这出新戏里被分配担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分产业给了他。
15 inevitably      adv.不可防止地;必定发生地 参阅例句:
  • In the way you go on,you are inevitably coming apart.照你们这样下去,毫无疑问是会拆伙的。
  • Technological changes will inevitably lead to unemployment.技能革新必定会导致赋闲。

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